"Deuteronomy" is a transliteration from a Greek word which means "second law." This title for the book is derived from the incorrect translation of Deuteronomy 17:18 in the Septuagint (the ancient Gr. translation of the OT). The Hebrew text is properly translated in the KJV, "that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book." Deuteronomy is not a 'second Law," but merely a repetition and expansion of the laws contained in the first books of the Pentateuch. The Hebrew title (the first words of the text) means "these are the words."
Deuteronomy is the fifth and final book of the Pentateuch or Law of Moses. The three final discourses of Moses which are recorded in this book (Deut. 1:6 -4:43; 4:44 -26:19; The 27 -31) were given while the Israelites were encamped in the plains of Moab.
These discourses reviewed the history of the Israelites up to that time, repeated and expanded upon the laws that God had given, and listed the promised blessings for obedience and cursings for disobedience. Moses was addressing the children of Israel only two months before they would cross the Jordan into Canaan (Deut. 1:3; cf. Josh. 4:19).
The form of the Book of Deuteronomy is very similar to that of the vassal-treaties written Prior to 1000 B.C.. It contains a historical introduction, an enumeration of laws, and concluding threats and promises. Unfortunately, Israel did not take heed to this or subsequent warnings that they would be judged for their disobedience. They were commanded not to do that which was right in their own eyes (Deut. 12:8), but this later became a characteristic of the entire nation (Judg.17:6; 21:25). They were also given instructions which specified what kind of king should rule over them and outlined his responsibilities, but these directives often forgotten or ignored (Deut. 17:14 -20, cf. 1 Sam. 8:7 -9; 1 Kgs. 10:26; 11:8).
Sections of Deuteronomy are strongly prophetic in nature. For example, the discourse on the prophet who would be like Moses (Deut. 18) is a prophecy of the Messiah. Likewise, certain portions of the book have great significance to the history of Israel. Consequently, words and phrases from Deuteronomy appear throughout the Old Testament. The prophets in particu1ar sought to call the people back to the standards found in this book.
The New Testament writers quoted from the Book of Deuteronomy nearly two hundred times. Christ Himself quoted from it exclusively in his answers to Satan's temptations (Matt. 4:1-11, cf. Deut. 6:13, 16; 8:3). [Source for Introduction of chapter: Hebrew Greek Key Study Bible KJV edited by Spiros Zodhiates, Th.D.
Today’s “Christians” commonly think, through the replacement theology they have been taught by their self- appointed leaders, that they are the “Church” as started by God in Exodus 4:22. To whom the promised Messiah was sent (Matt 15:24) and who became the chief cornerstone of the Church (Eph 2:20; 1Pet 2:6). The apostles continuing His teachings of the way back to Yahweh God our creator. Though many of the practices and theology of today’s Christians differ from those preached and practiced by Yahsua and the Apostles, including Paul, they do not see themselves as a new or different group to that started by God. His sanctified, separate and peculiar people as He said about another group; the sons of Jacob (Israel). Church is the modern name for congregation. The body of people (sons of Israel and strangers who attached themselves to the group Deut 5:22; 1015). It did not originate in 33 A.D. nor in Acts two; but was there from Noah’s time. His family were the group meeting and following His ways. Unfortunately, we are told or can assume that way was subsequently only kept by one man (and His wife?), Abraham. Through his faithfulness and obedience God decided to start a new group, congregation or church, with his family including extended family members, adhering to God’s way as described in His commandment etc. In Deut we see the start of what happens to this extended family as they are about to possess the Promised Land.
Imagine the pilgrims of years gone by who separated themselves from the rest of society to live a different more holy life. These could have been individual families or groups of similar mind and aspirations. This way included more holy or fair regulations (as they saw and adopted) under which to live. They may have been the same as outlined in the Bible, though not necessarily. Remember those leaving England and setting up a new way in the discovered land of America? Or subsequently, some from that group breaking away and setting up in remote places. Even today we have groups setting themselves apart from society and even trying to be self reliant. Well Deuteronomy is such a scenario (4:37). The extended family of Jacob, named after his new name of Israel as given by God, was supposed to clear the land of all weeds. The physical kind as unwanted trees, rocks, weeds and the human kind of pagans who may affect their holy living. They were also to maintain this environment clear of “weeds” by preventing pagan settlers coming in and causing them to stray from God’s way. Today’s Christians are descendants of the part of the group from which Israel the family were to separate themselves. It is imperative to your understanding that when you see the name Israel, you think of a separated family in the way described above. Not a group of “Jews” and all the false inherited baggage that comes with that description as taught. If any of that group wanted to be part of or reside among Israel they had to comply to God’s Torah for the way of life, blessings and curses as told in 1:16-17 Deu 1:16 “And I charged your judges at that time, saying, Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between every man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him. Deu 1:17 Ye shall not respect persons in judgment;but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God's: and the cause that is too hard for you, bring it unto me, and I will hear it”. “Stranger” being the Hebrew word H1616 גּיר גּר gêr gêyr. A non member of the family, a guest; foreigner: - alien, sojourner, stranger or as the Greek call them in the New testament, Gentile.
As you read Deuteronomy watch for the unfolding of this story past and to date as told on the day of Moses in chapters 1-3. I cannot refer you to every verse to note as the whole history is relevant. [In case any of you reading this be inclined to see some resemblance to actions of the Muslims, they are far from being the Israelite or real god’s group regardless of any similarities]. However, these are a few verses I noted once. 1:29, 45. 2:4, 5, v14 38 years; v 18 Lots possession, 24-25, 29-30; v34 and 3:6 all “weeds” regardless of age had to be extinguished. Regardless of Moses good leadership, actions, heart, pray and pleading of 3:25, he was not allowed into the promised land. The stress from leading such a huge multitude did not count. You may wish to reflect on a comparison with 9:20; Hezekiah in 2 Kings 20:3+ and 1 Kings 21:29 despite all the evil things Ahab did.
In chapter 4 Moses urges obedience to God’s “Laws”. Not adding or taking away from it (v2, 5). The wisdom of which is stated in v 6-8; yet Christians now say are nailed to the cross! I suggest careful attentive reading of chapters 4-6. 4:19 shows the worship of sun (ancestors of Christians), moon (ancestors of Muslims) were common among the heathen even then. V19 God took his family away from them. V24, 26 the witness of the covenant agreement. V30, 40 particular to you the reader here. We ask you to return to God’s ways as narrated by Moses. V37.
Chapter 5:3 is sometimes quoted as justification the covenant was with Israel not Christians. That is true, as Christians that retain their Sun day worship and other pagan customs as Xmas, Easter to name the major two, are not God’s people until they turn away from these pagan things. The covenant was probably not made with the fathers because it was unnecessary. They kept God’s ways and did not need a sweetener. One only bargains with people who do not want to do what you wish them to. No bargain, prize or inducement is needed if they would do the thing regardless. Compare 20:5 with Exodus 20:5; Josh 7:1, 4-11; 18-26 and Eze 3:16-21; 14:12-20; 33:1-20; 18:1-32, Jer 31:29, 30 Lam 5:7. Deu 5:12-14 “Sabbath Yahweh” not Israel’s. Even the working animal and servant were to obey i.e anything and anyone under your employment or “gate”. 5:26-31.
Deut 6 should be read attentively in its entirety. v4-9 and others is the daily if not weekly saying of the group Christians call “Jews” when they meet to worship; especially on Sabbaths. Jesus quoted part of v13 and Deut 10:20 in response to one of satn’s temptations (Matt 4:10; Luk 4;8). The early part of this book which was spoken by Moses while Israel in the wilderness, formed the basis of all three of Jesus’ responses. Thou shalt not tempt God (Matt 4:7; Luk 4:12) comes from Deut 6:16 and man shall not live by bread alone (Matt 4:4; Luk 4:12) from Deut 8:3. So if these “Laws” are nailed to the cross as Christians are taught; from what can they quote to rebut temptations?
7:4-8 especially v6-9. V9 repeated in Matt 1:17. Deut 7:16; 25-26. 8:2 remember everything as taught over the 40 years. They are all relevant as is said in 2 Tim 3:16. 8:5-6 shows the ways of God are a sign of |His love for us giving us such wise instructions inclusive of Mar 2:27 And he said unto them, The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath: Is 8:11-20 not common of many in prosperity thinking they have no need for God? 9:4-6 shows it was never for ones works that they were saved or blessed though works did and do and as Revelations say, will, be part of the consideration. 9:14. What God requires as stated in 10:12-13 has not changed nor has the commandments. 11:2 they had to follow and believe through faith not sight as do followers today. 11:8 Keep “all” v13 “diligently” (also v22, 27, 32 is basis for blessings not financial seed sowing). v14 first and latter rain, past and future blessings. Our hearts get deceived not our heads or our heads through lust(s) of our heart. Purpose of deceit not only for disobedience to God; but to get worship from those who know about and want to worship; religious people. To be done “all the days live on the earth” not until Messiah comes, New Testament or other. Not via own understanding [(12:8)(Judges 17:6; 21:25)]. Not every church or place of worship is acceptable (v13-18). V23-24. V30-31 do not even get close enough to “inquire” (know of or care to know of) how pagans worship their gods.
Chapter 13 is another thing many Christians have followed, except now they are contacting their “holy spirit”. Even though v2 says not to follow them if they say honouring a day attributed to a pagan god is acceptable. God uses your adherence to them or Him to “prove” your allegiance. V4 obey God’s voice as in His written word which he spoke to Moses. See 18:22 and if true but differs from Bible it’s to prove you. They may advise you “out of the way which God commanded” (v5). Eze 13:3. Matt 7:22. Deut 13:6-9; 15-16, 18 (see Jos 6:21). Bottom line, we are to do what is right in the eyes of God not ours 13:18 (Num 15:39; Deut 12:8; Judges 17:6; 21:25). Deut 14:1, 3-21. 15:21 nothing blemished can be offered to God (inclusive of things or days of pagan or unholy origins or intentions). Deut 16:9 compare with Lev 23:15 from when to count to arrive at the day of Pentecost. 16:16 could also include the wives who followed their husbands as head of household similar to 1Sam 1:3-5 & Luk 2:41. 16:19. 17:3-5 Sun day worship and their associated gods are ancient customs predating the New Testament. It was an “abomination” to God, with fatal consequences. Hence was not started or condoned by Yahsua (Jesus), the apostles nor Paul. This also includes honouring the moon as do the Muslims.
Deut 17:11-13. V15 “strangers” (certain “Christians”) cannot lead or head God’s church especially ones not versed in the “Law” as v11 and 18-19 requires. 18:11-14 not all contact with spirits or necessarily with the Holy Spirit. 18:15, 18-22 speaks of Yahsua (Acts 2:30; 3:22-23; 7:37). For Deut 18:22 see 13:1-3; Matt 7:22; 13:22. Also Jer 23:9-32; Eze 13:1-23 with Deut 13:5; Jer 28:16.
Deut 21:23 is said to be one reason why orthodox Jews are unwilling to accept Yahsua as the Messiah. Is 21:12 inherited reason why some Jewish women are told to shave their head? 22:5; 11. 23:1-3. V5 see Num 23:8; 13-14. V15 see Philemon. Pauls application of the law in letter to Philemon regarding his run away slave Onesimus. 23:17-18 “dog” = male prostitute. V25 see Matt 12:1. Deut 24:1-7 “When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house”. V16 see Eze 18:1-32. Deut 25:15-16. 26:1-9 “signs and wonders” was mark of God. Matt 24:24 and Mar 13:22 states false Christ will use great signs and wonders to deceive those searching for or desiring to obey the real God of the Torah / Bible, Yahweh. Not all will be “lying” wonders as in 2Th 2:9 “Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,”. Deut 26:16-19; 27:26-28:1-3; 9-10, 13-15;62. If chapter 28 depicts the paramount importance of adherence to God’s “law” and the severest consequences of His chosen people not keeping them, would such a God then nail them to the cross, especially for those who were not His chosen?
Note in 29:9-15 it was not only descendants of Israel (whom is commonly called Jews) that received these instructions Deu 29:9 Keep therefore the words of this covenant, and do them, that ye may prosper in all that ye do. Deu 29:10 Ye stand this day all of you before the LORD your God; your captains of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, with all the men of Israel, Deu 29:11 Your little ones, your wives, and thy stranger that is in thy camp, from the hewer of thy wood unto the drawer of thy water: Deu 29:12 That thou shouldest enter into covenant with the LORD thy God, and into his oath, which the LORD thy God maketh with thee this day: Deu 29:13 That he may establish thee to day for a people unto himself, and that he may be unto thee a God, as he hath said unto thee, and as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. Deu 29:14 Neither with you only do I make this covenant and this oath; Deu 29:15 But with him that standeth here with us this day before the LORD our God, and also with him that is not here with us this day: (future humans wanting s share of God’s promised blessings). Note this is a basic principle of God another example of which is given in Exo 20:10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
Those failing to keep and live by these instructions “the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven.” (v20) as is said in Rev 3:5 He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels. They “..received and heard, and hold fast, and repent” (Rev 3:3). They overcame satn’s deceits by keeping the commandments of God together with the faith of Yahsua the Messiah (Rev 12:17).
Deut 29:25-26 is not limited to blatant diviation from God’s way; but also succumbing to the deceits of satn in mixing pagan ways or days with His or instead of His. 30:11-16 is not merely for that time and occasion; but also general principle of adherence or departure from God’s way. 31:16-32:6, 9. Deut 34:5-7 Moses life can be divided into three periods of forty years. The first being in Egypt as a member of Pharaohs household (Acts 7:21-23). The second after he ran away to the land of Midian (Acts 7:29-30). The last as God’s intermediary after being called at the burning bush until his death. 34:10.